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35 Powerful Candlestick Patterns PDF Free Guide Download

Candlestick patterns are some of the most powerful trading techniques you can use in our trading.

Candlestick patterns can help you find bullish and bearish trades, and they can also help you manage your open trades.

In this post, we go through 35 powerful candlestick patterns you can start using in your trading today.


What are Japanese Candlestick Patterns

Japanese candlestick patterns are price action formations you can use to predict where the future price may go.

They are called candlestick patterns because they are formed on candlestick charts and form a repeatable pattern.

Technical analysis and pattern traders look to these patterns because they believe they can show the times when the bulls or bears are in control. This can lead to high probability trades.

Most traders who use candlestick patterns look at these patterns as signals to buy or sell.

There are both bullish and bearish candlestick patterns, and in this post, we go through both types and how you can use them.

 

How to Trade With Candlestick Patterns

Most traders use candlestick patterns as entry signals. You can, however, also use them to manage your open trades, including using them for take-profit targets and stop-loss points.

One thing that is often overlooked by retail traders when trading candlestick patterns is where they form and in what context is critical.


To find the best trades using these patterns, you will want to look at things like whether the market is trending or ranging or if there are critical levels of support and resistance.

If you are after the best results, you will want to use other information to help you find the best trades and not use candlesticks alone.

An example of this would be using popular indicators such as moving averages or the MACD. Using other indicators and price action analysis will help you confirm high-probability trades and increase your chance of winning trades.

 

List of 35 Powerful Candlesticks Patterns

Here is your complete list of 35 powerful candlestick patterns you can start using in your trading now. You can also get the free PDF of the 35 powerful candlestick patterns below.

1. Hammer

The hammer pattern is a single candlestick formation that signals a potential reversal back higher.

The key to the hammer is that it needs to form at the end of a move or trend lower.

The example below shows a bullish hammer pattern in play.

We can see that price opened and sold off heavily; however, by the end of the session, the bulls had roared back and taken over, signaling they were looking to price back higher.

Hammer pattern

2. Bullish Engulfing Bar

The bullish engulfing bar is a high probability pattern that hints that a reversal back lower is about to take place.

This candlestick pattern forms when the engulfing bar completely engulfs the previous candle.

For a valid bullish engulfing bar, there needs to be a lower low and higher high than the previous candlestick.

This indicates that the bulls have taken complete control, and the price could be looking to make a new move higher.

Check out an example of a valid bullish engulfing bar below.

Bullish engulfing bar

 

3. Piercing Pattern

The piercing pattern is a pattern formed with multiple candlesticks.

This pattern is a bullish reversal pattern that needs to form after a move or trend is lower.

The first candlestick of this pattern is a significant bearish candlestick with little to no wicks.

The second candlestick then gaps lower than the previous candle, but the buyers come in, and the candle finishes above the mid-way point of the first candle.

 

4. The Morning Star

The morning star pattern is formed with three candlesticks.

This is a bullish reversal candlestick pattern, and it should form after a move lower.

The first candlestick of this pattern is a large bearish candlestick.

The second candlestick is a doji that shows indecision after the move is lower.

The final candlestick is a significant bullish candlestick showing the buyers have now taken control after the indecision of the doji candlestick.

 

5. Three White Soldiers

The three white soldiers’ pattern is a bullish candlestick formation that hints at a new move higher.

This pattern is formed when we see three consecutive bullish candlesticks that have little to no wick and open within the body of the previous candlestick.

See the example below of the three white soldiers’ pattern.

Three white soldiers pattern

6. Three Inside Up

The three inside up candlestick pattern is a pattern that is formed with three candlesticks.

This is a bullish reversal candlestick pattern, and it should form after a move lower.

The first candlestick of this pattern is a large bearish candlestick.

The second candlestick is a small bullish candlestick that is entirely formed inside the first candlestick.

The last candlestick confirms the bullish reversal by moving and closing above the first candlestick.

Traders using this pattern will typically take a long position after it has confirmed itself, with the last candlestick closing higher.

 

7. White Marubozu

The white Marubozu pattern is a single candlestick pattern that hints at a bullish reverse back higher.

This pattern has a long bullish body with little to no wicks on either side of the candle.

This shows us that the bulls have taken over and were in control for the whole session.

See an example of this pattern below.

White Marubozu pattern

 

8. Bullish Harami

The bullish harami pattern is another multiple candlestick pattern that hints at a reversal higher.

The first candlestick of the harami pattern is a large bearish candlestick with a large body and little to no wicks on either end.

The second candlestick is a small bullish candlestick that forms entirely within the previous candlestick.

This pattern should not be traded alone but with other market information such as the trend and critical support and resistance levels.

 

9. Inverted Hammer

The inverted hammer pattern is a bullish reversal candlestick pattern.

This pattern must form at the end of a move or trend lower.

To identify this pattern, we need to see that the opening and closing prices are close to each other and that there is a large wick that points higher.

See the example below of an inverted hammer pattern.

Inverted hammer pattern

Note: You can get your 35 powerful candlestick patterns PDF and cheat sheet below.


 

10. Tweezer Bottom

The tweezer bottom candlestick pattern is a bullish reversal candlestick that forms at the bottom of a move lower.

These two candlestick patterns show the bulls looking to take control and push the price back higher.

The first candlestick of this pattern is bearish, and the second a bullish candlestick.

The low of these candlesticks will be almost the same, showing that both candlesticks found support.

The patterns form more often than others and can be used on all time frames.

 

11. Three Outside Up

The three outside up is another bullish candlestick pattern that hints at a reversal back higher.

This pattern consists of three candlesticks, usually formed after a lower move.

The first candlestick is a small bearish candlestick.

The second candlestick in this pattern is a large bullish candle, and the third is another long bullish candle that confirms that the buyers have taken control.

 

12. Bullish Counterattack

The bullish counterattack pattern is a two candlestick pattern that indicates a potential bullish reversal.

This pattern will form after a move lower, and you can use it to try and ride the subsequent move back higher.

The first candlestick of this pattern is a long bearish candlestick with a large candle body.

The second candlestick is a significant bullish candlestick that closes at or near the first candlestick’s high.

This pattern shows that the bulls have moved into the market and are looking to push prices back higher.

 

13. On-Neck Pattern

The on-neck pattern is a bearish continuation pattern formed with two candlesticks.

This pattern hints that the move lower could be looking to continue.

The first candle of this pattern is a long bearish candlestick.

The second candle is a small bullish candle that gaps below the first candle and then closes close to where the first candle closed. This forms a horizontal neckline pattern.

 

14. Dark Cloud Cover

The dark cloud cover is a bearish reversal pattern that forms after the price has been moving higher.

This is a multiple candlestick pattern that shows the price may be moving from being bullish to bearish.

The first candlestick is a significant bullish candlestick which shows the price continuing on with the trend higher.

The second candlestick is a bearish candlestick that gaps above the first candle and then closes below the 50% mark of the first candlestick.

Traders will typically enter a short trade at the completion of this pattern and when the new candlestick opens.

 

15. Hanging Man

The hanging man pattern is a pattern that hints at a potential bearish reversal back lower.

This pattern must form after a move or trend higher because we are looking for a reversal lower.

To correctly identify this pattern, you want to see that the candlestick’s body is formed towards the top and that there is a long lower candlestick with little to no upper wick.

See an example below of a hanging man pattern.

Hanging man pattern

16. Bearish Engulfing Bar

The bearish, engulfing bar pattern is the same as the bullish but inverse.

This pattern hints that there could be a bearish reversal and move lower on the cards.

To identify a valid bearish engulfing bar pattern, we need to see a higher high and lower low than the previous candlesticks.

We also want to see that the price has closed towards the bottom of the candlestick showing the sellers were in control when the candlestick finished forming.

This shows the bears have taken full control and are looking to push prices lower.

See an example of a bearish engulfing bar below.

Bearish engulfing bar

17. Three Black Crows

The three black crows pattern is similar to the three white soldiers’ pattern; however, this is a bearish pattern.

This pattern hints that the sellers are in control, and the price could move lower.

To identify the three black crows pattern, we want to see three consecutive bearish candlesticks with little or no candlestick wicks. We also want to see the candles form within the previous candlestick’s body.

See an example below of the three black crows’ pattern.

Three black crows pattern

18. Black Marubozu

The black Marubozu pattern is the bearish opposite of the white Marubozu pattern.

This is a single candlestick pattern that indicates there could be a bearish reversal about to take place.

This pattern will form after a move or trend higher.

This pattern forms with one sizeable bearish candle with little to no wicks on either end of the candlestick.

The black Marubozu pattern shows that the sellers stepped in and controlled the selling for most of the session.

 

19. The Evening Star

The evening start pattern is another bearish reversal pattern that indicates a move higher could be coming to an end, and a new move lower is about to start.

This pattern is formed with three candlesticks.

The first candlestick is a bullish candle. The second is a doji that shows indecision in the market. The third is then a bearish candlestick.

 20. Three Inside Down

The three inside down pattern is a multiple candlestick pattern that hints at a bearish reversal.

This pattern typically forms after a move higher, and traders will generally enter a trade using this pattern to ride a move lower.

The first candle of this pattern is a long bullish pattern. The second is a small bearish candle, and the third is a large bearish candlestick confirming that patten.

Traders will typically enter a short trade once this pattern has been confirmed and the new candle opens.

 

21. Shooting Star

The shooting star is a bearish reversal signal hinting that the price may be about to move back lower.

The key with this pattern is that we need to see it formed after a move or trend higher.

The body of this pattern needs to form towards the lower of the candlestick, and we need to see a sizeable upper candlestick wick.

See an example below of a shooting star pattern.

Shooting star pattern

 

22. Bearish Harami

The bearish harami pattern is the inverse of the bullish harami pattern.

This pattern is a bearish reversal pattern that hints that the bullish move higher could be coming to a close.

The first candlestick of this pattern is a large bullish candle, and the second is a small bearish candle that forms within the previous candles open and close.

Traders will typically enter a short trade when this pattern has been confirmed, and the new candle opens.

 

23. Tweezer Top

The tweezer top pattern is the inverse pattern of the tweezer bottom and indicates a potential reversal lower.

This pattern typically forms after a move higher, and traders will often use it to enter new short trades.

This pattern is formed with two candlesticks. The first candlestick is bullish, and the second is a bearish candlestick.

The key to this pattern is that both candlesticks have almost the same high. This shows resistance was found, and with the second candlestick, the bears took over and pushed the price lower.

 

24. Bearish Counterattack

The bearish counterattack is the inverse of the bullish counterattack.

This is a bearish reversal pattern and hints that the price could soon be looking to sell off and move lower.

This pattern will typically form after a move, or trend higher has taken place.

The first candlestick of this pattern is a large bullish candle with little to no wicks.

The second candle of this pattern then gaps higher but ends up closing lower and near the first candles closing price.

 

25. Doji

The Doji candlestick pattern is a pattern that shows you there is indecision in the markets.

The Doji is formed after the bulls and the bears have fought for where the price is to go, but the price ends up closing near the middle of the candlestick.

With this pattern, you will see higher and lower candlestick wicks with a small candlestick body.

See an example of a Doji candlestick pattern below.

Doji candlestick pattern

26. Three Outside Down

The three outside down pattern is a bearish reversal pattern usually found after a strong move higher.

This pattern is formed with three candlesticks.

The first candle is a short bullish candle. The second is a large bearish candle that fully engulfs the previous candlestick. The third candle is another bearish candlestick that closes below the second candle.

Traders will typically enter a short trade when this pattern has been confirmed, and a new candle opens.

 

27. Spinning Top

The spinning top and the doji candlestick patterns are very similar.

These candlestick patterns have upper and lower wicks, but the spinning top pattern has a slightly larger candlestick body.

The spinning top indicates indecision in the market and buyers and sellers fighting for control.

See an example of a spinning top candlestick pattern below.

Spinning top pattern

 

28. Falling Three Methods

The falling three methods pattern is a continuation pattern that signals a continuation of the trend lower could be in place.

This is a five candlestick pattern that shows there was a pause or disruption in the trend lower, but it could be about to continue.

This pattern is created with two large candlesticks in the same direction of the trend. There are then three smaller bullish candles in the middle.

This pattern shows that the bulls tried to push prices higher, but they could not gather enough steam to create a reversal back higher.

 

29. High Wave

The high wave pattern shows that the current price is indecisive and that neither the bulls nor the bears are in control.

This pattern typically forms in areas of important support or resistance.

The high wave pattern has very long upper and lower candlestick wicks and a small candle body.

This shows that both the bulls and the bears had periods of control during the session, but in the end, neither was in control.

 

30. Rising Three Methods

The rising three method pattern is the inverse of the falling three method pattern.

This pattern shows that a trend higher was interrupted, but it is likely to continue.

The rising three methods have two large bullish candlesticks and three small bearish candlesticks in the middle.

This shows that the bears tried to gain control and force a reversal lower but could not gather enough momentum to beat the trend higher.

 

31. Downside Tasuki Gap

The downside Tasuki gap pattern is a bearish continuation pattern that shows the trend lower could be looking to continue.

This pattern is formed with three candles. The first of these is a large bearish candlestick. The second is another sizeable bearish candle that gapped down. The third candlestick is a bullish candle that closes that last gap created.

This pattern is formed within a trend lower, and you can use it to identify when the price could be looking to continue moving lower.

 

32. Mat Hold

The mat hold pattern is a continuation pattern, indicating that a trend higher or lower is looking to continue.

There are both bullish and bearish mat hold patterns, and they can be very good at helping you manage your open trades.

A bullish mat hold pattern is created with five candles.

The first candlestick is a large bullish candle. The second candlestick then gaps higher. Three smaller bearish candlesticks then follow this.

 

33. Upside Tasuki Gap

The upside Tasuki gap is the inverse of the downside Tasuki gap pattern.

This pattern is formed with three candlesticks and indicates a continuation of the trend higher could be on the cards.

The first candlestick of this pattern is a large bullish candle. The second is another bullish candle that gaps above the first candle.

The third candlestick is a bearish candlestick that closes the gap created by the first two candles.

You can use this pattern to identify when the price could be looking to continue the trend higher.

 

34. Rising Window

The rising window pattern is a continuation pattern indicating that the price could be looking to carry on with the trend higher.

This pattern is formed with two candlesticks. Both candlesticks are strong bullish candles, with the second candle bursting out higher and creating a gap between the first candle.

You can use this pattern to identify when the price could be looking to continue a bullish trend.

 

35. Falling Window

The falling window pattern is the inverse of the falling window pattern.

This pattern indicates that the price could be looking to continue a move or trend lower.

The falling window pattern is formed with two bearish candlesticks. The second of these candle gaps lower before the first, showing the sellers are still in control.

You can use this pattern to identify when an existing trend lower could be looking to continue.

Lastly

These 35 powerful candlestick patterns show that there are a lot of profitable patterns you can use in your trading.

The great thing about candlestick patterns is that they work over an extensive range of markets and can be used in many different time frames.

The key to these patterns is the market’s price action context and where they form.

The other thing to remember is that you don’t need to know all these patterns. You only need a handful of your favorites that you can master to make profitable trades.

Sunday, 17 July 2022

9 Advanced & Profitable Trading Strategy

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People who succeed at day trading do three things very well:



They identify intra-day trading strategies that are tried, tested. They are 100% disciplined in executing those strategies.
They stick to a strict money management regime.
Jump right to one you like, just click on it 

Momentum Reversal Trading Strategy
Role Reversal Trading Strategy
Heikin-Ashi Trading Strategy
RSI Trading Strategy, 5 Systems + Back Test Results
The Moving average crossover strategy
The swing day trading strategy Candlestick patterns
The Bollinger band squeeze strategy The narrow range strategy
The 2 period RSI strategy
Binary options trading strategy that generates 150% return


You’re probably thinking:

“How do I find intra-day trading strategies that actually work?”

And Are there some day trading rules that will help me to trade forex, commodities, stocks?
All you need to do is: set aside a few minutes of your day to tackle one of the following forex day trading strategies which I outline for you below.

The reality is this:

Few people are successfully day trading forex or other markets for a living,

That’s the uncomfortable fact of life that marketers don’t like to speak of! And those few people are most probably trading with other peoples money, like traders working for a bank or a hedge fund.

That means the stakes are not as high for them, as they are for a person trading their own capital.

That being said;

There are intra-day trading strategies beginners can use to maximise their chances to stay in the game for the long haul. These can be use in most markets like forex, commodities or stocks.

Because, ‘the long haul’ is where someone can turn their initial starting capital, into a retirement nest egg!
 

So, in this article I will show you everything you need to know to get started including:

Awesome forex day trading strategies that are used successfully every day.
The main chart patterns associated with these forex trading strategies.
Instructions for implementing the strategies.
Then I will tell you,

How to manage your trading risk to stay in the game for the long haul.

The simple truth is.
Learning to use and implement a basic intra-day trading strategies can cut your losses by 63% immediately and will increase your profitability chances in the long run.


 

 


Tuesday, 5 July 2022

STRATEGY #1: Gap Up - Inside Bar - BreakOut

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STRATEGY #1: Gap Up - Inside Bar - BreakOut


The most efficient way to learn is by going through examples. For each price pattern, we start with its identification rules and end with a chart example
This day trading signal, as the name implies, starts out with a Gap Up. If the second or third 10 min. bar develops into an Inside Bar, you have a setup.
As an alternative, you might consider stocks that have only partially gapped up as long as they are ranked high on a 'gainer's list'. By partially gapped up, I mean a gap above the previous day's close, but still below the previous day's high. This type can still provide great intraday signals, especially on days when there aren't many stocks opening with a full gap.
I prefer to have only one or two 10 min bars develop before the inside bar, because more than two bars generally means price has moved too far already for this to be an effective setup.
Many times with three or four bars advancing with higher highs, followed by an inside bar, you'll see an upside breakout and then price will very quickly reverse and break below the low of the inside bar. This often turns out to be the beginning of a substantial retracement on that time frame.

I have other strategies coming up, that are better to use once a stock has already moved a good distance from it's opening price.
So once you've got the inside bar, you would then place a buy stop directly above the high of the inside bar. The trigger is the BreakOut above the inside bar.
As mentioned on the stock day trading system page , you should always know in advance where your stop will be placed. You might decide to place it directly under the inside bar, or depending on the range of the inside bar and the low of the breakout bar, you might place the stop under the breakout bar instead.
Once the trade signal has you long and you've got your stop in place, then you have to start thinking about where and how you would like to exit.
That's assuming of course, that your stop isn't hit. If it is, just chalk it up as a loss and move on to the next trade.
No big deal, right? If you've read my page on trading money management and position sizing it shouldn't be.
Lets take a look at some examples of Strategy #1 

There's many different exit methods or trailing stop techniques you can use once in the trade. A trendline or support and resistance type exit in the second example below would've exited this trade at around the same price.
EXAMPLE 2 
Remember, day trading signals are just that....signals or triggers for a trade entry. They are not complete systems until you add your stop and exit strategies along with position sizing on each and every trade.
And always follow this day trading tip -- know where that stop is going to be before you take the trade. Better yet, use day trading software that can automatically place those stops for you and

Tuesday, 3 May 2022

Rights Issue of shares - Definition, Benefits, Eligibility and Prices

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 A rights issue is an invitation to the existing shareholders to buy additional shares of the company at a discounted price within a specific time frame.







Content:

  1. Rights Issue meaning
  2. Rights Issue eligibility
  3. Rights Issue Date
  4. Why rights issue?
  5. Rights Entitlements
  6. Rights Issue options
  7. Rights Issue Procedure
  8. Rights issue benefits
  9. Rights issue disadvantages
  10. Types of rights issue
  11. Rights Issue - How to apply?
  12. Rights issue impact on share price
  13. Conclusion
  14. FAQs

Rights Issue Meaning

A rights issue is a primary market offer to the existing shareholders to buy additional shares of the company on a pro-rata basis within a specified date at a discounted price than the current market price.

It is important to note that the rights issue offer is an invitation that provides an opportunity for existing shareholders to increase their shareholding. It is a right that a shareholder may or may not choose to exercise and not an obligation to buy the shares.


Rights Issue Eligibility

Unlike initial and follow-up public offering, the rights issue is not open for the general public but only to existing shareholders of the company. A company announces a record date in case of a rights issue. To be eligible to qualify as an existing shareholder for the rights issue, one must own the shares of the company as on the record date. The shares become ex-rights one day before the record date. If you buy the shares on or after the ex-date, you will not be eligible to receive rights entitlements as you would not qualify as an existing shareholder of the company as on record date. (considering Trade date +2 settlement)

For example, a company offering a rights issue announces 18th August 2020 as the record date, one must own the shares of the company in their Demat account as on that date. If one buys the shares on 17th August, the person will not be considered as an existing shareholder in company books even when he buys stock before the record date as the credit of shares in Demat will happen on 19th August. The shares become ex-rights from 17th August.


Rights Issue Date

  • Record Date

    A record date is a cut-off date to determine eligible shareholders for the rights issue.

  • Issue Opening Date

    The issue opening date is a date when one can start applying for the rights issue.

  • Issue Closure Date

    The issue closing date is the cut-off for applying for the rights issue. No applications can be made post the issue closure date.

  • Rights Entitlement Trading Dates

    These are the on-market renunciation of rights entitlements dates within which the rights entitlements can be traded on the stock exchange. The trading commences with issue opening date and generally closes 3-4 working days before the issue closure date.

  • Allotment Date

    The allotment date is when the company finalizes the allotment based on the applications received and the Demat holding list of the rights entitlements.

  • Date of credit

    The credit date is when the rights shares are credited to the Demat account once the allotment is finalized.

  • Date of commencement of trading or Listing date

    This is the date when the rights issue shares will get listed on the stock exchange and trade along with other equity shares.


Why rights issue?

A company issues rights shares to raise additional capital. The most common reasons for a company to prefer rights issue over other public offerings is as follows.

  1. To reduce the debt-equity ratio of the company.
  2. Cash strapped companies in need of capital and not wanting to increase the debt burden by taking any loans.
  3. For company expansion, acquisition, takeovers or other general corporate purposes.

Rights Entitlements

A company offering rights issue will credit the rights entitlement to eligible shareholders in proportion of their existing holdings. Rights entitlements (RE) is a temporary credit of shares done to the eligible shareholder's Demat account that allows the shareholders to apply or trade for that many numbers of shares.

The credit of RE in the Demat account does not put an obligation on the shareholder to compulsorily buy the rights.


Rights Issue Options

A right issue is an offer for shareholder to increase their shareholder of the company which he can accept or reject and has every right to choose from one of the below options:

  1. Exercise the right in full and apply for the eligible rights share.
  2. Exercise the right in full and apply for the eligible rights share as well as additional rights share.
  3. Ignore the RE fully and let the rights lapse. No action is required in this case.
  4. Exercise partial rights and let the remaining rights lapse.
  5. Exercise partial rights and transfer the remaining rights to other interested investors. This process of transfer or sale of RE is called renunciation of rights.
  6. Transfer or sell the entire RE to other interested investors.

Note:

The credit of RE does not mean you own the rights share. The existing shareholder or the buyer of the RE (known as renouncee) need to apply for the rights share based on the RE in their account.

The allotment for additional rights share in option 2 will be based on the issue subscription status and thus not guaranteed.


Rights Issue Procedure

Earlier the rights issue was a long duration process taking about two months for a company to complete the entire issue . Recently in January 2020, SEBI has issued new guidelines to streamline the rights issue process and reduce the timeframe for rights issue completion to 31 days by cutting on the timelines for various processes and introducing the dematerialization of RE.

Steps in a Rights Issue Process:

  1. Dispatch/Upload of application forms by the issuer, registrar, exchanges on their website.
  2. The credit of RE in Demat account of eligible shareholders.
  3. Interested investors/renouncees to submit the application form to apply for rights issues.
  4. Allotment and credit of rights issue shares in Demat account post reconciliation of RE Demat holding list and applications received.

Rights Issue Benefits

The rights issue offers various benefits to the shareholder as well as the company.

Benefits for the company

  1. Rights issue is the fastest mode of raising capital for the company.
  2. It is a low-cost affair for the company as company can save on the underwriters fees, advertisement expenses.
  3. The confidence of the existing shareholders is retained by making the discounted offer to existing owners as payback for being part of the company.
  4. The company can raise additional funds without increasing the debt burden.

Benefits for the Shareholders

  1. Rights issues provide an opportunity for existing shareholders to increase their stake in the company at a lesser price than the current market price.
  2. The rights issue retains the control of the company with existing shareholders when subscribed by the existing shareholders without renouncing their rights to outsiders.

Rights Issue Disadvantages

  1. The rights issue would result in dilution in the value of holdings of the existing shareholders.
  2. One of the reasons, the company looks to issue rights share is the need for cash on account of being cash strapped. This may sometimes give a wrong signal to investors that a company is struggling which may impact the reputation of the company and the share price.
  3. The rights issue would increase the number of shares of a company spreading the profit across that many shares impacting earning per share (EPS).

Types of rights issue

The rights issue can be classified into 4 types:

  1. Fully paid rights issue

    A fully paid rights issue is where an applicant is required to pay the entire issue amount at the time of application.

  2. Partly paid rights issue

    A partly paid rights issue is where an applicant is required to pay only a partial amount at the time of application. The balance amount is to be paid as and when subsequent calls are made by the company.

The above types of rights issue decide the terms of payment of an issue.

  1. Renounceable rights issue

    A renounceable rights issue can be easily transferred or sold to other investors in the open market. A RE holder can opt to transfer his rights in case he does not want to subscribe to his rights.

  2. Non-renounceable rights issue

    A non-renounceable rights issue cannot be transferred or sold to anyone. In such cases, a RE holder not willing to exercise his right to buy the rights share will have the only option to give up his rights and let the RE lapse.

Generally, most companies issue renounceable rights.


Rights Issue - How to apply?

The interested investors can apply for the rights issue online or offline using the ASBA facility or R-WAP (Registrar's Web-based Application Platform) facility. SEBI has recently introduced the R-WAP facility as a temporary arrangement to ease the process of application in these pandemic times.

Making an application through ASBA process

  1. Investors need to submit the application form received from the issuing company either physically or online to SCSB by downloading the form from the website of SCSB, registrar, exchanges, or company. In case of non-accessibility to the application form in the worst case, investors can also apply on a plain paper. However, this would restrict investors from renouncing their RE.
  2. As a pre-requisite to apply through this mode, investors are required to have an ASBA enabled bank account with an SCSB.

Making an application through R-WAP process

  1. Investors need to fill in the online application form available on R-WAP.
  2. As a pre-requisite to apply through this mode, investors are required to have a UPI facility enabled or an active internet banking account.

Important Points to Note:

  1. The R-WAP facility is only for resident investors.
  2. The payment for application through R-WAP should not be made using a third-party account.
  3. Ensure to mention correct PAN, depository, beneficiary, and bank details (ASBA or UPI) on the application form to avoid any issues.
  4. Application on plain paper is not allowed to apply through the R-WAP facility.

Rights Issue Impact on Share Price

When a company offers the right issue its share price gets diluted and is likely to go down post the issue due to an increase in the number of shares floating in the market. The price can be theoretically derived using a mathematical formula as per below and is known as Theoretical ex-rights price (TERP). It is important to note that this is just an estimated share price post the rights issue completion and can differ from the actual market price depending on the market sentiments. The downfall in the price can be temporary and can take a U-turn if the company is utilizing proceeds for expansion and investors see good prospects in the company.

TERP = (Rights share * Offer price + Existing shares * Market price) / Total number of shares

For example, ABC company announces rights shares in the ratio of 1:5 i.e. one share for every 5 shares held at a discounted price of Rs. 250. The current market price of Rs. 300. Based on this, the TERP can be derived as per below to estimate a rough share price post the rights issue.

Estimated Ex- Rights Price Issue can be (1*250) + (5*300) / 6 = 291.67

The security can be expected to trading around Rs.291.67 ex-rights.


Conclusion

The rights issues are gaining popularity recently with SEBI streamlining the process of rights issues and many companies looking to opt to issue rights nowadays to raise additional capital. The investors should not get attracted just by discounts offered by the company but also should have knowledge of the company's performance and the reason why the company is issuing rights before subscribing to the issue.

Learn more about Rights Issue

  • Rights Issue Entitlement
  • Rights Issue Glossary - Definitions, Abbreviations and Meaning
  • Rights Issue Review
  • Latest Rights Issue

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. 1. What is a rights issue?

    A rights issue is an offer to the existing shareholders to purchase additional shares of the company at a discounted price. The rights issue is made in proportion to the existing holdings and is required to be subscribed within a specific period failing which the rights lapse.

    Key features of a rights issue:

    1. The rights issue is a primary market issue.
    2. The offer is made to the existing shareholders and not to the general public.
    3. It is the right of the shareholder and not an obligation to buy the additional shares.
    4. The rights can be transferred or sold if the existing shareholder is not interested in accepting the offer.

  2. 2. Who can apply for rights issue?

    The existing shareholders and renouncees can apply for the rights issue.

    The rights are offered to the existing shareholders who are on the records of the company as on a cut-off date known as a record date fixed by the company. The company credits the rights entitlements (RE) to their Demat account which needs to be applied to get the rights share.

    In case, the existing shareholders are not willing to subscribe to the rights, he/she can transfer or sell their RE to outsiders on the exchange floor. The buyers of these RE are known as renouncees who are then eligible to apply for a rights issue in the proportion of the RE bought.


  3. 3. Is rights issue mandatory?

    A rights issue gives the rights to the shareholder but does not put any obligation to buy the additional shares.

    It is not mandatory to buy the rights offered. A shareholder can either:

    1. Ignore their rights and let it lapse.
    2. Transfer or sell the rights to other interested investors.

  4. 4. Why are rights issue offered?

    Rights issues are offered by the companies to raise additional capital for various purposes.

    A company may issue rights account of various reasons as per below:

    1. The company has become cash strapped and needs funds.
    2. For company expansion, takeovers, mergers, acquisitions.
    3. To purchase equipment.
    4. For general corporate purposes.
    5. To repay the loan.

  5. 5. What are the advantages of rights issue?

    The rights issue is the fastest and the most economical method of raising capital for the company. It gives preferential treatment to the existing shareholders by offering additional shares of the company at a discounted price than the current market price.


  6. 6. How do I apply for the rights issue?

    One can apply for the rights issue online or offline through the ASBA process. Recently, SEBI has also made a temporary arrangement to apply for rights using the R-WAP facility. (Registrar's Web-based application platform)

    Steps to apply:

    1. Investors need to fill up the application form received from the company. Alternatively, investors can download the application form from the websites of exchange, company, registrar, or company.
    2. Investors are generally required to furnish their details which include depository details, PAN No., and, bank account number.
    3. The duly filled up and signed application form is required to be submitted physically to the designated branch of Self-Certified Syndicate Banks (SCSB) or online. In case of application through the R-WAP facility, the form is required to be filled up online.
    4. Once the applications are processed, SCSB blocks the application money in the applicant's account.

    Note: An investor is required to have an ASBA enabled account for making an application through the ASBA facility and UPI facility or net banking for making applications through the R-WAP facility.


  7. 7. What happens if I do not subscribe to my rights?

    The rights issue is an offer that needs to be accepted by the shareholder. In case, a shareholder does not subscribe to his rights, the rights get lapsed i.e. the shareholder will not get any additional shares if not applied for.

    The shareholder's ownership in the company will get diluted as their stake would get reduced by not applying to the rights issue. Moreover, the ex-rights issue price generally comes down (price fall expected due to an increase in the number of shares, however, it all depends on the market sentiments and price may not fall). Thus if a shareholder does not subscribe to the issue he may tend to lose the compensation offered by the discounted price. Hence, one must keep a track of the company's performance, prospects, and the reasons for raising the capital and then decide whether or not to subscribe to the rights issue.

  8. 8. Are rights issue good for shareholders?

    The rights issue is good for shareholders as it provides an opportunity for the shareholders to increase the stake in a company at a reduced price compared to the current market price.

    However, the shareholders should not just get lured by the discounted price but, should also know about the company valuations and performance and the object of the rights issue to avail of the benefits of the rights issue.


  9. 9. Can I buy rights issue shares?

    The rights issue shares can be bought or applied for based on the pro-rata rights entitlement credited to the eligible shareholders of the company as on record date.

    An interested investor not in possession of any rights entitlement can also buy the rights shares by purchasing the rights entitlement from the stock market by participating in rights entitlement trading or through an off-market transaction. This will enable him to buy or apply for rights shares based on the entitlements bought.


  10. 10. Can I sell rights issue?

    The shareholders not willing to subscribe to their rights issue can sell their rights in the open market through the rights entitlement trading platform of the stock exchange or via off-market transaction. This is known as the renunciation of rights shares.

    Once a shareholder renounces their rights either in part or full cannot apply for any additional rights share at a later stage.


  11. 11. Can rights issue be applied online?

    The rights issue can be applied online through ASBA facility using net banking or through Registrars Web-based Application Platform (RWAP) using UPI or net banking. The RWAP process is a temporary arrangement allowed to ease the process in current pandemic times.

    As a prerequisite to apply using the ASBA facility you would need to have an ASBA enabled account along with the option of investing in rights issues. To apply using the RWAP facility, you would need a UPI facility enabled as a prerequisite.


  12. 12. Can rights issue be oversubscribed?

    The rights issue can be oversubscribed when people apply for additional rights shares over and above their entitlements.

    Only the eligible shareholders exercising their rights in full can apply for additional shares above their entitlements. A renouncee cannot apply for additional shares above their entitlements purchased from the stock market or off-market transfer.

     

  13. 13. Can rights issue be sold?

    The rights issue can be sold by transferring their entitlements to other interested investors in part or full if the shareholder does not wish to subscribe to his entitlements.

    The rights issue can be sold either through rights entitlement trading on the stock exchange or through an off-market transaction.


  14. 14. What will happen to my RE shares if I do not apply for rights issue?

    The RE shares will get lapsed if you do not apply for the rights issue and your Demat account credited with these temporary shares will get debited once the allocation process is complete.

    If the RE has been purchased, you will also lose the amount paid to acquire those REs. Thus REs in themselves do not mean you hold rights shares, the rights shares need to be applied for by the issue closing date.